Wild West Tech - Brothel Tech   View more episodes

Aired at 10:00 PM on Wednesday, May 05, 2010 (5/5/2010)      View all transcripts from this day


00:00:00Ue on this floor itself,,, that most of the time they didn't even bother.
00:00:04If there was ever a party in tombstone, it was at the bird cage theatre.
00:00:16>> Lower in the prostitute pecking order were "crib" women, the anonymous multitudes who worked for themselves.
00:00:23They made their livings in squalid one-room shacks, or "cribs," not much bigger than outhouses- one right next to the other.
00:00:30These on "d" street in virginia city, nevada, ,, women who toiled here " >> it would get cheaper and cheaper as you went along.
00:00:42Twenty-five cents was, frequently, when you're a down-on-your-luck hooker, that was what you'd charge.
00:00:48>> There was a way to fall even further.
00:00:51The streetwalker was the lowest of the low.
00:00:54Some are said to have carried squares of carpet or animal skins, which they threw on the ground for comfort while servicing clients.
00:01:04The fascination with, judgement of, and sympathy for the prostitutes' plight was reflected in the nicknames assigned to them.
00:01:12>> It's been said that the eskimos have 38 words for caribou because that's so important in their culture.
00:01:18Well, if you consider what's important in our culture, prostitution in the old west, ,, I mean, there's all-- "soiled doves" is one.
00:01:27>> "Double-breasted mattress thatcher," I believe was one.
00:01:30" that's a very charming one.
00:01:33>> The day-to-day existence of a prostitute in the american west was pretty grimy.
00:01:38We'll expose all the dirt when wild west tech brothels,, continues.
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00:05:23[Cheering and applause] ,,,, >> houses of ill repute weren't always houses.
00:06:12Some brothels were tents.
00:06:14Any place that could accommodate a couple of people would do.
00:06:18And the faster it went up, the better.
00:06:27Now that's one way to pitch a tent.
00:06:32>> It takes a while to bring in 1h - Brothel Te All those things take time.
00:06:36But a tent, you just unfold and put it up.
00:06:39>> What you see in the movies, the typical thing is a big feather bed and, you know, a lot of comfort and it wasn't like that at all.
00:06:47>> There were no quilts or blankets, just an oilcloth,, at the end of the bed.
00:06:54It was very basic.
00:06:55A strip of heavy cotton that had been coated one or two times with linseed oil.
00:07:00The oil hardened to produce a sturdy and water-resistant product.
00:07:04The oilcloth was an essential tool of the trade.
00:07:09>> The oilcloth was often put over the lower one-third of the bed, because the cowboys or the miners were in too much of a hurry to take off their boots.
00:07:17And by putting oilcloth, it kept from getting mud directly onto the bed.
00:07:20So they'd slide their pants down and climb on, without having,, to take their boots off.
00:07:28>> The american west and the people in it were dirty, literally.
00:07:33>> The living conditions in the west were practically unbearable.
00:07:38Cleanliness was absolutely,, unheard of.
00:07:42We have to remember, this was a place heavily populated by horses, so the streets were literally knee-deep in horse manure, mud, at any given time.
00:07:56>> Prostitutes did what they could for their own sakes and their clients'.
00:08:00>> They would usually use a little basin and some soap and water, both to wash the private parts and to examine them for things like, syphilitic chancres and gonorrheal discharge.
00:08:10>> More on that later.
00:08:12>> These little pans were called "peter pans" for obvious reasons.
00:08:16>> It had a lot less to do with little boys who didn't wanna grow up.
00:08:22>> The "peter pan" was a ceramic dish, usually with a matching pitcher.
00:08:27In the days before plumbing, a set, or two, like this was found in every whorehouse and home no matter how modest.
00:08:38Speaking of modest, the way prostitutes looked was a factor.
00:08:42But standards of the day were different and far less demanding than current cultural norms.
00:08:48>> Prostitution thrived in a time before widespread use of cosmetics.
00:08:55Beauty was in the eye of the beholder.
00:08:58It wasn't dictated by popular media.
00:09:01It wasn't dictated ,, people looked the way they looked and they were fine with it.
00:09:11>> The higher-class brothel workers were the cream of the crop.
00:09:15>> What's the difference between a chevrolet ,, it's poise, grammar, you know, a lot of things.
00:09:26>> The "cadillacs" were required to bathe three times a week.
00:09:30They made their eyes bright by rubbing soapsuds or even drops of whiskey into them.
00:09:35,, eyelashes were groomed with a mixture of leaf lard and nitric oxide or mercury.
00:09:41It made them appear lush and full.
00:09:46Cologne was okay, but only behind the ears.
00:09:49A perfumed handkerchief was too much, vulgar by victorian standards.
00:09:55Painted faces were common.
00:09:57Rouge was applied with a rabbit's foot.
00:09:59But pale and pure was the ideal, helped along by chemicals.
00:10:05>> Sometimes there were arsenic drops that you would drink in order to bring ,, you could also rub it in very, you know, carcinogenic, we know now.
00:10:19>> Photographic evidence indicates that there were few true beauties in the trade.
00:10:24>> If you were gonna make it, you made it in new york or somewhere east.
00:10:27And so anything that was out here was kind of the leftovers, so to speak.
00:10:32>> There's a couple of, you know, famous scenes like I think there's one in butch cassidy, where, you know, paul newman is in a whorehouse.
00:10:39And there's a much, as much chance of, um,,, a man finding a hooker who looked like those women as a woman finding a customer that looked like paul newman.
00:10:51>> Prostitutes enhanced their figures with corsets, fake breasts ,, a wad of horse hair here and there worked wonders.
00:11:05This superficial display was the only shred of glamour in a relentlessly dreary existence.
00:11:12On payday in some mining towns, one prostitute would service,, 70 customers or more, all by herself.
00:11:21>> Frequently in the lower class brothels, men didn't even lie down.
00:11:26>> So you have this idea that the men would come in and they basically tipped their hat >> thanks a lot.
00:11:33>> And said, good-bye.
00:11:34>> Time's up.
00:11:39Not every encounter was quick.
00:11:41Time spent with a prostitute depended on what the customer wanted.
00:11:45He could have whatever he could afford.
00:11:47>> Depending on the lady and her particular tastes and beliefs, the services offered by prostitutes in the west were virtually anything a teenage cowboy could imagine, and that's quite a lot.
00:12:03>> As part of sex acts, men would pay to insert objects,, in women.
00:12:08Again, that was, and is still, a part of commercial sex.
00:12:15>> While we're talking about objects, I'm gonna answer a question some of you are surely asking, "didn't women of the era " well, the swer is yes.
00:12:26Technology shook things up, so to speak, in 1869.
00:12:31That's when the first vibrator was patented.
00:12:33Believe it or not, it was steam-powered.
00:12:38,, it was called " it was mounted under a table on which the patient was face-down over a hole.
00:12:49The machine moved rollers under this opening at speeds ,, the vibrator was a medical necessity for the fairer sex.
00:13:01It was thought to cure stress and hysteria because women seemed so relaxed after their "treatments".
00:13:07It was the women themselves, though, who provided relief for the men.
00:13:17>> There's only so many things two people can do together sexually.
00:13:21I mean, men and women have a limited number of organs and a limited number of ways of putting them together.
00:13:28,, >> but that wasn't always so simple, or safe.
00:13:34Physical danger was an everyday reality.
00:13:37>> You're dealing with drunk males who are armed.
00:13:39It was a very, very difficult time for them.
00:13:44>> There are countless newspaper stories of women being beat up by customers.
00:13:48There's stories about men shooting up a brothel.
00:13:53>> Bouncers were employed at the better establishments.
00:13:56They were summoned with a series of signals.
00:13:59>> The system of knocks and lights, or signals in a brothel was to signal the protective services of the brothel in case a customer became a little overzealous in their business.
00:14:18,, >> prostitutes directed violence toward each other, too.
00:14:24They went on the defense and offense with weapons of all kinds.
00:14:30Bats, lots of them, were found in the dumas brothel.
00:14:33And it's not because baseball was america's favorite game in 1860.
00:14:38Knives were used and so were guns.
00:14:41Mattie silks, a denver madam, had all of her dresses custom-made with two special pockets: One for her silver dollars, the other for her ,, it was probably a derringer, a small weapon that could be hidden easily.
00:15:05Remington's 41 caliber rimfire ,, it's less than 5 inches from butt to muzzle.
00:15:15The double barrels hinge upward to load.
00:15:19>> A lot of people wonder about the power of a derringer.
00:15:22And while they were very impotent compared to modern day pistols,, or even a big bore, uh, revolver or some other firearm of the day, you have to bear in mind that it was a close range gun.
00:15:36>> DENVER. AUGUST 25th, 1877.
00:15:40One of the most famous catfights in the west had two big madams, using the tiny guns.
00:15:46Mattie silks and kate fulton went at it in the street with derringers, dueling over a man.
00:15:52He was mattie's guy, but kate was moving in.
00:15:57When the smoke cleared,, someone lay wounded nearby.
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00:19:39Deaf, hard-of-hearing and people with speech disabilities, access com ,,,,,, ] >> in the summer of 1877, denver madams mattie silks and kate fulton faced off in a duel.
00:20:31According to one of the many accounts of this fight, they fired with their guns, and then went at it with their fists.
00:20:38When all was said and done, someone had been seriously injured--cort thomson-- the man they'd been fighting over.
00:20:48Turns out kate ,, >> the derringer would certainly not the best choice for a firearm in a duel because they're such short barrels and sometimes underpowered, however, if you hit something, you could do some damage.
00:21:05>> Kate took her broken spirit,,, and nose, out of town on a stagecoach the next day.
00:21:10Mattie nursed her guy back to health and made it into the history books.
00:21:14>> She's legendary.
00:21:15She would be, uh, IN A COOPERSTOWN [bleep] MUSEUM.
00:21:18,, >> danger for prostitutes took far more insidious forms.
00:21:32We widespread.
00:21:34,, >> wild bill hickok was going blind from venereal disease when he was killed.
00:21:46Which most people didn't know at the time.
00:21:47Which wild bill kept secret for obvious reasons.
00:21:52>> People knew it ravaged individuals, but they didn't know how or why,,, and it was treated with a very toxic kind of elixir based on mercury.
00:22:04>> The disease wasn't pretty as this "before" photo shows.
00:22:08But the treatment, which seemed to work miracles, wasn't either.
00:22:12Syphilis victims often died,, from mercury's side effects, which included tooth loss.
00:22:18Gonorrhea treatment involved this hideous instrument.
00:22:23It was a huge syringe, made of metal or glass, which injected lead chloride ,, because germs lined the duct, introduction of the antiseptic killed them on contact.
00:22:37"Internal irrigation" is what doctors " their patients surely had another name for it.
00:22:43>> The textbooks back then said "most men could tolerate this " isn't that encouraging?
00:22:49>> An infected woman didn't have it much better.
00:22:53Leeches were sometimes put on her swollen cervix.
00:22:57>> All of this was done without anesthetic.
00:22:59,, to prevent the transmission of venereal disease: Abstinence and the prophylactic.
00:23:09The ages-old condom was around at the time.
00:23:12Here's what it looked like.
00:23:14It was moistened to make it pliable.
00:23:19,, it all started with them.
00:23:23Condoms were made with sheep's intestine.
00:23:26The guts were soaked for hours in water, they were then turned inside out and scraped clean of the mucous membranes.
00:23:34They were washed or soaked again in alkaline or lye.
00:23:41Then they were cut and shaped over molds.
00:23:46This process took a lot of time and it made condoms expensive.
00:23:52Imagine putting all that in our wallet.
00:23:57A technological advancement changed condom manufacturing forever.
00:24:03In 1844, charles goodyear patented a process called " vulcanization chemically,, altered rubber's structure.
00:24:12This change made rubber stronger, more flexible, and more versatile.
00:24:16It also transformed rubber from a sticky substance to a smooth one.
00:24:21Once vulcanized, rubber wouldn't adhere ,, high heat was applied to rubber, which was then cured with sulfur.
00:24:31Until this advancement, rubber wasn't widely used for much except erasers and medical equipment.
00:24:40Rubber condoms were first MANUFACTURED IN THE MID-1800s,,, Spawning an industry that grew through the turn of the century.
00:24:48There are no figures to indicate who used condoms IN THE 1800s AND HOW OFTEN.
00:24:54But we do know is that men made the call on that.
00:24:59>> Most women were relatively powerless and had to accept what the customer wanted, which meant the customers usually chose against condoms, unless they were, they themselves were worried about transmission.
00:25:13That's one of the reasons why women preferred, quote, "clean regulars," where they thought the man was disease-free.
00:25:23>> For good measure they douched.
00:25:25This kit from 1866 was used with home remedies such as red rose leaves, ,, another hazard for prostitutes was pregnancy.
00:25:40Several barrier methods were used as prevention.
00:25:43One was the vaginal sponge.
00:25:46It was tied with a ribbon ,, the "french secret" was a beeswax plug, of sorts.
00:25:54The forerunner of the diaphragm took a number of forms, some of them improvised.
00:25:59One of the wildest stories from the rough and tumble west is a testament to such " an historian recorded this oral account.
00:26:09>> The women always looked down their noses at us, excepting when they needed some money for a charity.
00:26:15Then they'd come down and ask us girls.
00:26:19Well, I always donated, ,, I had found out from a old lady that if you used a certain size coin and placed it just right then you wouldn't get pregnant.
00:26:32Well, when I used them coins I laid them on a table in my room.
00:26:37And then,,, when them society ladies came down, I give them the coins on my table.
00:26:51>> There's no question that prostitution was essential to the economies of western cities and towns,, in 19th century america.
00:26:59Many times the grocers who spent their money on saturday night in a brothel would get that same money back monday morning across the counter to buy trade goods.
00:27:08>> Every shift change there was a huge influx of people the uptown area.
00:27:18So food and entertainment, in whatever form of entertainment, you wanna call it, but this was certainly an instrumental part of that and, of course, money flowing throughout the community,, was what took place here.
00:27:33>> It's the perfect example of what today's people call " the sailors and the miners and the soldiers would give their money to the prostitutes.
00:27:41The prostitutes would turn righarouound and pay their landlords, their lawyers, their doctors, their pimps, the milliners, the dressmakers, the jewelers, the saloon keepers and so the money circulated in the town.
00:27:54They were kind like the federal reserve board.
00:27:55They kept the economy going.
00:27:59>> Among the men who fed the coffers were legends of western lore-gunslingers,, and outlaws who enjoyed time with shady ladies.
00:28:08>> The wild bunch, butch cassidy's wild bunch, consorted, if that's even the right word, with prostitutes regularly and actually lived with ladies of the evening,, almost exclusively.
00:28:22>> When wild west tech returns.
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00:33:04Wyatt earp, butch cassidy, doc holliday and billy the kid are just a few of the others with ties to the world's oldest profession.
00:33:14Billy the kid has a couple of connections to the good-time girls.
00:33:18Around 1877, the kid was,, working as a hand at a hogranch in southeastern arizona.
00:33:25Hogranch wasn't what the name implied.
00:33:27There were no pigs there.
00:33:29But pork could be had in abundance.
00:33:32When soldiers from nearby camp grant came around for fun,,, billy stole their saddles.
00:33:39Distractions made it easy for the kid.
00:33:42>> They got so tired of the saddles being stolen, that they would rig long ropes and go all the inside so that they could make out with the women and still ,, but the kid just tied the rope to a tree outside and took their saddles anyway.
00:33:58>> A really strange story has it that billy the kid was a transvestite-- and that he dressed in drag in order to have sex with men.
00:34:06According to some accounts, the kid wasn't faking,, his feminine tendencies.
00:34:11>> Part of the legend says that billy the kid had small wrists.
00:34:14That he was a good dancer.
00:34:16His picture- he looks a little flowing in the hips.
00:34:18And so began to develop this theory that he really, ,, >> wyatt earp was no saint.
00:34:30His second wife, mattie blaylock, became a prostitute after he moved in with josephine marcus.
00:34:36Marcus was an actress who had settled in tombstone.
00:34:41This may or may not be josie,,, but one thing most people did agree on is that she was a looker.
00:34:50Butch cassidy and his wild bunch liked wild women, it seems.
00:34:54The sundance kid's girlfriend, etta place, was a prostitute.
00:34:58By the way,,, her real name's believed to have been "ethel" as it appears on this wanted poster, unless the typesetter made a mistake.
00:35:06Spellcheck was still a century away.
00:35:10>> Sundance probably met her in fanny porter's bordello in texas.
00:35:14And that's apparently,, where she was working.
00:35:17A number of the wild bunch had lady friends that came from fanny porter's bordello.
00:35:21It was quite the resource for them.
00:35:27>> The san antonio brothel was also a hideout, and rendezvous spot.
00:35:32The wild bunch got very comfortable there.
00:35:34A little too comfortable.
00:35:36One of the boys passed out, fully dressed, on fannie's satin sheets.
00:35:41They were shred by his spurs.
00:35:43Fannie was so mad she called authorities.
00:35:46For the record, shredding sheets with one's spurs wasn't nice, but it wasn't a crime.
00:35:55Some of butch cassidy's ill-gotten gains were used to pay prostitutes.
00:36:00Even in those days, authorities could trace serial numbers on currency.
00:36:04Once these codes were known,,, tracking was easy.
00:36:08The letter, for instance, indicated which city minted it.
00:36:15When lawmen connected the money to two of the girls from fannie's brothel, they knew the wild bunch ,, none of the outlaws has a longer history with prostitutes than doc holliday and his soiled dove.
00:36:30The tubercular dentist had a long association with mary katherine haroney.
00:36:34>> Somewhere she got " and she really doesn't have a big proboscis but she got that moniker.
00:36:41And it's a classic, classic name.
00:36:45>> Kate and doc's common law relationship was stormy.
00:36:48Heavy drinking and fights were a hallmark of this union.
00:36:51Yet in their own ways, they loved each other.
00:36:54>> We know that she filed charged against him, or she accused him of robbing the benson stage.
00:36:58And retracted it the next day and said that she was drunk.
00:37:02So they obviously had argued quite a bit and had a really love-hate relationship.
00:37:09>> Her devotion to him WAS ON DISPLAY IN THE LATE 1870s,, When doc fatally slashed a man during a poker game in texas.
00:37:20He was arrested in short order.
00:37:23>> He was being held and a lynch mob was getting antsy down the street.
00:37:27And kate decided she was gonna rescue doc,, and set fire to a shed out back.
00:37:34>> There's not a lot of substantiation for that.
00:37:36But it is part of the legend.
00:37:37You're not gonna make it go away.
00:37:39And one thing's for sure, she would have done that even if it didn't happen.
00:37:44>> Kate's said to have confronted a guard,, with two six-shooters.
00:37:47She handed one to doc.
00:37:49It was likely the cartridge conversion of the colt navy revolver.
00:37:53>> It was popular because it was very well balanced.
00:37:55It was an accurate arm.
00:37:57And it had a medium power.
00:37:58And again, with the medical technology, you didn't always have to make a killing shot,, to be very effective.
00:38:03Many men were shot in the leg or in some way that, by today's standards would be just what we call "a flesh wound" and would get very sick and die within a couple of weeks later.
00:38:1738 caliber pistol was a breechloader with a side mounted gate behind the cylinder.
00:38:23The spent cartridges were pushed out the back with a rod that was next to the barrel.
00:38:28The hammer was manually cocked.
00:38:30This assured accurate aim before firing.
00:38:35>> History has recorded that holliday did prefer that firearm.
00:38:39And there are at least one specimen of that type of gun known that's documented to doc holliday.
00:38:47>> This was a very reliable weapon.
00:38:50That's why nothing much changed in its design or manufacture,, for decades.
00:38:55Now back to our story.
00:38:59Kate and doc fled texas.
00:39:01He with his life and forever in her debt.
00:39:05A few years later, the pair turned up , on october 26, 1881, "big nose kate" was watching when doc holliday and the earps took on the clantons and McLaurys at the o.k. corral.
00:39:20>> She is probably one of the foremost witnesses to the gunfight at the o.k. corral.
00:39:25She was literally five feet away in a window, in fact, she had to leave the window because the window pane above her was shot out.
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00:43:57,, >> big nose kate had a front row seat to history.
00:44:05In 1881 she was watching from a hotel window when her boyfriend doc holliday, along with wyatt, morgan and virgil earp,, confronted the clantons and McLaurys at the o-k corral.
00:44:21>> There were 11 witnesses minimum to the gunfight corral, but she was one of the closest.
00:44:29She says a really interesting thing after the fight,,, she said, "it's foolish to think that country gunmen can go up " >> doc holliday survived the battle, of course, and picked up with kate.
00:44:43>> Kate always referred to herself as mrs. holliday.
00:44:46Of course, there was no,, real wedding, but they were as good as married for those times and place.
00:44:55>> Doc died in 1887.
00:44:58Kate lived well into the 20th century.
00:45:01When she saw wyatt earp and other gunslingers become legends in their own time, she tried to sell her life story.
00:45:08There were no takers.
00:45:12There were many sad endings for prostitutes who lived and worked in the american west.
00:45:18>> There's no question that, that prostitutes were exposed to a great deal of danger,, because they had their doors open to strangers.
00:45:27>> The life and death of julia bulette is just one example.
00:45:33She was a prostitute on the comstock who had made ,, on a january night in 1867, 35-year-old julia was murdered in a ghastly way.
00:45:45She was smothered and strangled.
00:45:47As if that weren't enough, she was beaten, and some of her possessions were stolen.
00:45:52Her brutal death shocked the people,, of virginia city, nevada.
00:45:56>> But what really put the spotlight on her was that her assailant was caught a year later and was hanged in the first public execution in virginia city.
00:46:10,, >> death came by their own hand, too.
00:46:18Suicide rates for prostitutes were very high.
00:46:22>> It's hard to calculate a good rate because we can't actually calculate precisely how many prostitutes there were.
00:46:29But when we look 1h - Brothel Te Suicides, single suicides, double suicides, pacts between women and pacts between women and a lover were fairly common.
00:46:39And the availability of laudanum, in particular,,, which was a sleeping medicine, but you could also take it as a poison.
00:46:50>> Laudanum was an opium-based drug that was much used and abused during victorian times.
00:46:57The opium was extracted by piercing the plant's center, ,, a milky-white fluid seeped out and was collected in a dish.
00:47:07It was mixed with sugar or alcohol and then swallowed.
00:47:11Edgar allen poe and samuel taylor coleridge were laudanum addicts.
00:47:16And mattie blaylock,,, the woman jilted by wyatt earp, overdosed on laudanum--and died.
00:47:25Some assert that the deaths of prostitutes were not intentional.
00:47:29>> They would take opium 'till it was just about to be overdose point,, and it would create an abortion and a lot of the gals couldn't take it or couldn't handle it properly and they died and for a long time they thought that the gals were committing suicide using opium, but it was an aftermath ,, >> accidental or not, it's a fact that drugs were a part of a prostitute's existence.
00:47:59Other opiates were common including opium, which was smoked through a pipe, and morphine, which was injected.
00:48:07These drugs dulled sensations.
00:48:09They mimic the brain's natural endorphins which signal pleasure.
00:48:15Drugs were easily gotten in frontier pharmacies and through the mail.
00:48:20Alcohol was readily accessible.
00:48:23Cough serums by the dozen were found at the dumas brothel in butte.
00:48:28Ingredients including chloroform suppressed coughs and everyday feelings of despair.
00:48:36The loneliness and lack of comfort that plagued the tough-as-nails prostitute,, is, ironically, illustrated with an image that's sweet and innocent.
00:48:47>> Prostitutes were famous for having pets-- dogs, poodles, cats.
00:48:54They, they were so starved for affection because that's the last thing,, they got.
00:49:00We think of a house of prostitution is where a lot of love going on in there.
00:49:05There's no love going on there.
00:49:08>> Something happened as the west became more populated.
00:49:12Bible-based movements against prostitution were powerful forces for change.
00:49:17Laws were enacted and enforced where they were generally overlooked before.
00:49:24Prostitution wasn't just accepted and tolerated as part of life in the american west.
00:49:30It contributed,, to the economic vitality of towns big and small.
00:49:34Men were happy to pay for it and sadly, the women in brothels paid, too.
00:49:40I'm keith carradine and I'll see you next time ",, Captioning presented byA&E TELEVISION NETWORKS ,, ( narrator )A new country heads west, with new heroesand a new enemy...
00:50:00the American wilderness.
00:50:01( growling ) The pioneers face incrediblehardship...
00:50:06but their battlesforge the American character ,, and build the newAmerican nation.
00:50:12,, ( ship whistle blowing ) We are pioneersand trailblazers.
00:50:23We fight for freedom.
00:50:26We transform our dreamsinto the truth.
00:50:28,, Our struggleswill become a nation.
00:50:45,, 300 million years BC.
00:50:53A meteorite the size ofCentral Park hurtles towards Earth.
00:51:01,, With the force of 100,000atomic bombs, it smashes intothe Appalachian Mountains.
00:51:09The Cumberland Gap.
00:51:11When America passesthrough this gateway and conquers what lies beyond, a colony willbecome a continent.
00:51:20I think Americans have always been-- have been pioneers.
00:51:24( man ) We're a nation of adventurers and explorers.
00:51:27We are always moving forward and we're always dealing with problems, not ignoring them.
00:51:33,, 1775.
00:51:40Land west ofthe Cumberland Gap belongs to a patchwork offoreign superpowers: Britain, France, Spain.
00:51:47The rest occupied by hundredsof Native American tribes.
00:51:50,, 3,000 miles of fertile land.
00:52:01Millions of acres foranyone who can conquer it.
00:52:05,, Riches, too.
00:52:09Thousands of tons of goldand silver.
00:52:14( growling )( screaming ) But this land is alsobrutal wilderness.
00:52:22,, Conquering itrequires extraordinary people.
00:52:30March 1775.
00:52:34Daniel Boone: woodsman, hunter, ,, freedom fighter, explorer...
00:52:47Okay, men, keep clearing.
00:52:48Cut it through,we're coming through here.
00:52:50Boone and his 30 men slashthrough the Cumberland Gap...
00:52:54,, on a mission to tapthe riches.
00:52:58Cut it through,we're coming through here.
00:52:59( "Daniel Boone" )Before us lay the finest body of land in the world, with which little exertionwe can call our own.
00:53:06One day thousandswill desire this land, and we will be rich.
00:53:10,, But Boone's journey intothe western wilderness is also a journeyinto the American soul.
00:53:21The frontier is a crucible where Americawill define itself and forge its true character.
00:53:26,, The King of England has outlawedany Western expansion, illegal settlersrounded up and punished.
00:53:37Boone's already foughtthe British back East.
00:53:40Now he's defying them again.
00:53:43( man )Daniel Boone was that first great action hero for America.
00:53:48America wanted to see itselfthat way, I think.
00:53:51They wanted tosee themselves as fiercely independent, very capable and... and willing to go places most human beings wouldn't have gone.
00:54:00,, Come on, men, this way.
00:54:03Boone and hismen take no supplies.
00:54:07Come on, come on !
00:54:12Survival: Conjuredfrom the land.
00:54:15,, Bear grease:insect repellent.
00:54:18Wasp larvae: Food.
00:54:20Come on, come on !
00:54:22Boone records in his journal.
00:54:23( "Daniel Boone" )We are exposed daily to peril and death amongst savages and wild beasts.
00:54:28But naturesatisfies all we need.
00:54:31Few experience the happinesswe feel here in the howling wilderness.
00:54:43But for the Shawnee,this is not wilderness.
00:54:47It is home.
00:54:47,, And they willdefend it...
00:54:54... at all costs.
00:54:59Good work, John,good work.
00:55:03( man )These areas that seemed like wilderness ,, to the Americansweren't wilderness to these American-Indianpeople.
00:55:09That was just their lands.
00:55:14Daniel Boone and the Shawneehave history.
00:55:18Only the year before, they kidnapped hiseldest son, James...
00:55:27And tortured him to death.
00:55:36,, On the 25th of March, 1775, Boone crosses intoShawnee territory.
00:55:46In the mountains for eight days...
00:55:52,, People were able to survive on this...
00:55:59... with nothing to eat.
00:56:08,, ( men shouting ) ( man ) Go, go !
00:56:18Go, go, run !
00:56:20Rifles, get 'em, come on !
00:56:24,, ( screaming ) Ambushed,Boone must flee.
00:56:35His friend, Captain Twitty,and his slave, Sam, are both scalpedand slaughtered.
00:56:40,, But Boone pushes onfurther west.
00:56:50( man ) Well, I think more than anything, the American character is perseverance.
00:56:55They persevered, they fought, ,, it wasn't easy against great odds, but they had persevered.
00:57:05Boone's friend and companionFelix Walker writes: ( "Felix Walker" )He conducted the company through the wilderness with such bravery.
00:57:13,, Indeed he appearedvoid of fear, with too littlecaution for the enterprise.
00:57:2550 of Boone's men diesettling Kentucky.
00:57:29,, But within 20 years, 200,000 Americanspour in behind him.
00:57:36( man )We were a burgeoning society.
00:57:39Suddenly we realized, whoa, the owner'smanual says, "This is all ours.
00:57:46Keep going west." Land hungerbecomes a fever...
00:57:59even for the government.
00:58:01,, 1803.
00:58:0227 years afterindependence, the single biggestreal-estate deal in history.
00:58:09President Thomas Jefferson buys the vast Louisianaterritories from Napoleon.
00:58:14Half a billion acresfor 3¢ an acre.
00:58:17,, Just as America willone day go to the moon, now a mission intothis unknown.
00:58:31Lewis and Clarkwanna see what's on the other side.
00:58:33,, Given a mountain,we wanna climb it.
00:58:40We hold those...
00:58:42venturers of the past in great admiratatn.
00:58:49,, May 1804.
00:58:52A presidential aideand a junior army officer set out on mappingexpedition.
00:58:59Meriwether Lewisand William Clark's journey is about to become one of themost epic tales of survival in American history.
00:59:06, ( thundering ) The Rockies: unknown, mythical.
00:59:15Even woolly mammoth arefabled to roam here.
00:59:22Treacherous, too.
00:59:23,, No one expectsthe Rockies to be 90 separate mountain ranges,3,000 miles long.
00:59:31They're caughtin a death trap.
00:59:36After two weeks,starvation sets in.
00:59:38,, They eat any plantsthey can find.
00:59:44Next, they eat their horses.
00:59:47The expeditionis given up as dead.
00:59:54,, But they survive, and they owe theirsurvival to a 16-year-oldNative American girl.
01:00:03Sacagawea of the Shoshone Nationguides them, finds wild food, and saves their preciousmillion-word journals ,, from an overturned canoe.
01:00:18In 1805, William Clarknotes in his journal: ( "William Clark" )Ocean in view !
01:00:25O ! The joy !